Blog entry by Dims yon
The thyroid gland is one of the biggest glands in our body. This gland is found in the lower neck with a shape like butterflies (near Adam's apple / Adam's apple) or we can know when we swallow saliva then this thyroid gland will move upwards. Thyroid gland makes, stores and secretes the hormones T3 (triiodothyronin) and T4 (Thyroxine). Thyroid also accumulates iodine from an eaten diet (to produce thyroid hormone). T3 and T4 hormones function to regulate metabolism in the body (affecting every cell, tissue and organs in the body).
Working mechanism of Thyroid Gland:
At first, the Hypothalamus will produce TRH (Thyrotropine Releasing Hormone) which will stimulate the Pituitary Gland (Hipofise) to produce TSH (Thyrotropine stimulating hormone), then TSH will spur the thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4. If thyroid hormones are produced in small amounts then TSH will increase in value to spur the thyroid gland to produce enough T3 and T4. Conversely, if an increase in production of T3 and T4 then TSH will decrease in number so as not to form T3 and T4 again.
Hypothalamus ----- TRH --------> Pituitary Gland ------- TSH ------> Thyroid Gland -------> T3 and T4
Hypothyroid is a condition in which the production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland is insufficient. Cretinism is one form of hypothyroidism.
Causes: iodine deficiency, Hashimoto's disease, hormone deficiency of the hypothalamus and pituitary, autosum (genetic) disorders.
Hypothyroid has 3 Type:
1. Primary (Including the most common type, disorders of the thyroid gland, can be caused by Hashimoto's disease (autoimmune disease) or use
Radioiodine in hyperthyroid therapy)
Secondary (Occurs when the pituitary gland produces an insufficient amount of TSH). This disorder can be caused by damage to the pituitary gland
(Tumor, radiation or surgery).
3. Tertiary (When the Hypothalamus fails to produce TRH, whereas TRH serves to stimulate the Pituitary Gland to produce TSH)
* Talk slow, hoarse
* Menstrual cycle disorders
* Low body temperature
* Memory interruption
* Difficult to concentrate
* Low blood sugar levels
* Hair loss
* Swallowing disorders
Short and shallow breath
* Impaired kidney function
* Increased serum cholesterol
* Decreased libido
* Breast enlargement in men (gynecomasti)
Hyperthyroid is a condition in which the thyroid gland works overload to produce excessive Thyroid (T3 and T4) hormones.
Thyroid hormone serves to regulate the body's metabolism and maintain normal cell function. If the hormone is excessive it will occur overstimulasi metabolism and increase the effects of the sympathetic nervous system that causes increased speed of the body system, including increased heart rate, pulse, tremor (vibrating hand), anxiety, digestive disorders (diarrhea) and weight loss.
Main symptoms: Weight loss is usually accompanied by increased appetite, anxiety, heat resistance, weakness, hair loss, excessive activity, depression, frequent urination, tremors, edema (swelling) of the feet and sweating. Sometimes accompanied by pounding symptoms, arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat), shortness of breath, decreased libido, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Hyperthyroid which in the long term untreated can cause osteoporosis.
Thyrotoxic crisis is a rare hyperthyroid complication, where the patient's condition becomes very severe. Symptoms include an increase in body temperature up to 40o C, tachycardia (increased heart rate), arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat), nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration (lack of fluids), coma and death.
Diagnosis is made from history of symptoms experienced, physical examination, Thyroid ultrasound, and Laboratory Examination (TSH, T3 and T4)
Normal Thyroid function is very important for overall body health.
Thyroid disorders are common (especially in women) and often occur without being diagnosed.
Although there is no international consensus, TSH measurement accuracy is generally the best first practice to diagnose thyroid disorders.
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