Exercitiu Matching Headings - dificultate ridicata

The Reading passage has nine paragraphs, A—I.

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-1 from the list of headings below.

List of Headings

i An unexpected preference for modem items

ii Two distinct reasons for selection in one type of museum

iii The growing cost of housing museum exhibits

iv The growing importance of collections for research purposes

v The global 'size' of the problem

vi A place where some collections are unsafe

vii The need to show as much as possible to visitors

viii How unexpected items are dealt with

ix The decision-making difficulties of one museum worker

x The two roles of museums

xi A lengthy, but necessary task

 

Example               Answer  

Paragraph A       xi

1 Paragraph B

2, Paragraph C

3 Paragraph D

4  Paragraph E

5  Paragraph F

6  Paragraph G

7  Paragraph H

8  Paragraph I

Behind the scenes at the museum

With more and more of what museums own ending up behind locked doors, curators are hatching plans to widen access to their collections.

 A When, in  1938, the  Smithsonian  National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, DC, decided it had run out of space, it began transferring part of its collection from the  cramped attic and basement rooms where the specimens had been languishing to an out-of-town warehouse. Restoring those specimens to pristine condition was a monumental task.  One member of staff, for example, spent six months doing nothing but gluing the legs back on to crane flies. But 30 million items and seven years later, the job was done.

 B At least for the moment. For the Smithsonian owns 130 million plants, animals, rocks and fossils and that number is growing at over 2 per cent a year. On an international scale, however, such numbers are not exceptional. The Natural History Museum in London has 80 million specimens. And, in a slightly different scientific context, the Science Museum next door to it has 300,000 objects recording the history of science and technology. Deciding what to do with these huge accumulations of things is becoming a pressing problem. They cannot be thrown away, but only a tiny fraction can be put on display.

C The huge, invisible collections behind the scenes at science and natural history museums are the result of the dual functions of these institutions. On the one hand, they are places for the public to go and look at things. On the other, they are places of research — and researchers are not interested merely in the big, showy things that curators like to reveal to the public.

D Blythe House in West London, the Science Museum's principal storage facility, has, as might be expected, cabinets full of early astronomical instruments  such  as astrolabes and celestial globes. The museum is also custodian to things that are dangerous. It holds a lot of equipment of  Sir William  Crookes,  a  19th  century scientist who built the first cathode-ray tubes, experimented with radium and also discovered thallium — an extremely poisonous element. He was a sloppy worker. All his equipment was contaminated with radioactive materials but he worked in an age when nobody knew about the malevolent effects of radioactivity.

E Neil Brown is the senior curator for classical physics, time and microscopes at the Science Museum. He spends his professional life looking for objects that illustrate some aspect of scientific and  technological  development.  Collections of computers, and domestic appliances such as television sets and washing machines, are growing especially fast. But the  rapid pace of technological change, and the volume of new  objects, makes  it  increasingly  hard  to identify what future generations will regard as significant. There were originally, for example, three different versions of the videocassette recorder and nobody knew at the time, which was going to win. And who, in the 1970s, would have realised the enormous effect the computer would have by the turn of the century?

F The public is often surprised at the Science Museum's interest in recent objects. Mr Brown says he frequently turns down antique brass and mahogany electrical instruments on the grounds that they already have  enough of them, but he is happy to receive objects such as the Atomic domestic coffee maker, and a 114-piece Do-It-Yourself toolkit with canvas case, and a greenbeer bottle.

 G Natural history museums collect for a different purpose. Their  accumulations  are  part  of attempts to identify and understand the natural world. Some of the plants and animals they hold are 'type specimens'. In other words, they are the standard reference unit, like a reference weight or length, for the species in question. Other specimens are valuable because of their age. One of the most famous demonstrations of natural selection in action was made using museum specimens.A study of moths collected over a long period of time showed that their wings became darker (which made them less visible to insectivorous birds) as the industrial revolution made Britain more polluted.

H Year after year, the value of such collections quietly and reliably increases, as scientists find uses that would have been inconceivable to those who started them a century or two ago. Genetic analysis, pharmaceutical development, bio-mimetrics (engineering that mimics nature to  produce  new  designs)  and bio-diversity mapping are all developments that would have been unimaginable to the museums' founders.

I  But as the collections grow older, they grow bigger. Insects may be small, but there are millions of them and entomologists would like to catalogue every one. And when the reference material is a pair of giraffes or a blue whale, space becomes a problem. That is why museums such as the Smithsonian are increasingly forced to turn to out-of-town storage facilities. But museums that show the public only a small fraction of their material risk losing the goodwill of governments and the public, which they need to keep running. Hence the determination of so many museums to make their back room collections more widely available.

 

The Reading passage has nine paragraphs, A—I.

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-1 from the list of headings below.

List of Headings

i An unexpected preference for modem items

ii Two distinct reasons for selection in one type of museum

iii The growing cost of housing museum exhibits

iv The growing importance of collections for research purposes

v The global 'size' of the problem

vi A place where some collections are unsafe

vii The need to show as much as possible to visitors

viii How unexpected items are dealt with

ix The decision-making difficulties of one museum worker

x The two roles of museums

xi A lengthy, but necessary task

 

Example               Answer  

Paragraph A       xi

1 Paragraph B

2, Paragraph C

3 Paragraph D

4  Paragraph E

5  Paragraph F

6  Paragraph G

7  Paragraph H

8  Paragraph I

Behind the scenes at the museum

With more and more of what museums own ending up behind locked doors, curators are hatching plans to widen access to their collections.

 A When, in  1938, the  Smithsonian  National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, DC, decided it had run out of space, it began transferring part of its collection from the  cramped attic and basement rooms where the specimens had been languishing to an out-of-town warehouse. Restoring those specimens to pristine condition was a monumental task.  One member of staff, for example, spent six months doing nothing but gluing the legs back on to crane flies. But 30 million items and seven years later, the job was done.

 B At least for the moment. For the Smithsonian owns 130 million plants, animals, rocks and fossils and that number is growing at over 2 per cent a year. On an international scale, however, such numbers are not exceptional. The Natural History Museum in London has 80 million specimens. And, in a slightly different scientific context, the Science Museum next door to it has 300,000 objects recording the history of science and technology. Deciding what to do with these huge accumulations of things is becoming a pressing problem. They cannot be thrown away, but only a tiny fraction can be put on display.

C The huge, invisible collections behind the scenes at science and natural history museums are the result of the dual functions of these institutions. On the one hand, they are places for the public to go and look at things. On the other, they are places of research — and researchers are not interested merely in the big, showy things that curators like to reveal to the public.

D Blythe House in West London, the Science Museum's principal storage facility, has, as might be expected, cabinets full of early astronomical instruments  such  as astrolabes and celestial globes. The museum is also custodian to things that are dangerous. It holds a lot of equipment of  Sir William  Crookes,  a              19th  century scientist who built the first cathode-ray tubes, experimented with radium and also discovered thallium — an extremely poisonous element. He was a sloppy worker. All his equipment was contaminated with radioactive materials but he worked in an age when nobody knew about the malevolent effects of radioactivity.

E Neil Brown is the senior curator for classical physics, time and microscopes at the Science Museum. He spends his professional life looking for objects that illustrate some aspect of scientific and  technological  development.  Collections of computers, and domestic appliances such as television sets and washing machines, are growing especially fast. But the  rapid pace of technological change, and the volume of new  objects, makes  it  increasingly  hard  to identify what future generations will regard as significant. There were originally, for example, three different versions of the videocassette recorder and nobody knew at the time, which was going to win. And who, in the 1970s, would have realised the enormous effect the computer would have by the turn of the century?

F The public is often surprised at the Science Museum's interest in recent objects. Mr Brown says he frequently turns down antique brass and mahogany electrical instruments on the grounds that they already have  enough of them, but he is happy to receive objects such as the Atomic domestic coffee maker, and a 114-piece Do-It-Yourself toolkit with canvas case, and a greenbeer bottle.

 G Natural history museums collect for a different purpose. Their  accumulations  are  part  of attempts to identify and understand the natural world. Some of the plants and animals they hold are 'type specimens'. In other words, they are the standard reference unit, like a reference weight or length, for the species in question. Other specimens are valuable because of their age. One of the most famous demonstrations of natural selection in action was made using museum specimens.A study of moths collected over a long period of time showed that their wings became darker (which made them less visible to insectivorous birds) as the industrial revolution made Britain more polluted.

H Year after year, the value of such collections quietly and reliably increases, as scientists find uses that would have been inconceivable to those who started them a century or two ago. Genetic analysis, pharmaceutical development, bio-mimetrics (engineering that mimics nature to  produce  new  designs)  and bio-diversity mapping are all developments that would have been unimaginable to the museums' founders.

I  But as the collections grow older, they grow bigger. Insects may be small, but there are millions of them and entomologists would like to catalogue every one. And when the reference material is a pair of giraffes or a blue whale, space becomes a problem. That is why museums such as the Smithsonian are increasingly forced to turn to out-of-town storage facilities. But museums that show the public only a small fraction of their material risk losing the goodwill of governments and the public, which they need to keep running. Hence the determination of so many museums to make their back room collections more widely available.